SVT disease

Types of Supraventricular Tachycardia (SVT)

SVT is an abnormally fast heartbeat. For many people, treatment and lifestyle changes can control or eliminate this type of heart rhythm problem (arrhythmia). COVID-19: Advice, updates and vaccine option Supraventricular tachycardia is by far the most common heart arrhythmia seen in infants and children. There are many types of SVT, but the most common form in children occurs when there is an extra electrical connection between the top and bottom chambers of the heart, called an accessory electrical pathway SVT is a group of heart conditions that all have a few things in common. The term has Latin roots. Supraventricular means above the ventricles, which are the lower two sections of your heart... An episode of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) occurs when abnormal electrical impulses suddenly start in the upper chambers of the heart, and override the heart's natural rhythm. SVT is sometimes called paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT). Paroxysm means a sudden temporary disturbance of heart rhythm Atrial fibrillation, for example, can often occur during the stress of septic shock or coronary ischemia; whether the tachycardia is also contributing to the hypotension (thereby making the SVT unstable and requiring cardioversion) can often be impossible to sort out with confidence

Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) is a fast heart rhythm arising from abnormal electrical activity in the upper part of the heart. There are four main types: atrial fibrillation, paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT), atrial flutter, and Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. There are possibly six subdivisions of PSVT. Symptoms common to them all may include palpitations, feeling of. Supraventricular tachycardia, or SVT, is a type of rapid heartbeat that begins in the upper chambers of the heart. Most cases don't need to be treated. They go away on their own

Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) is a category of rapid cardiac arrhythmias that originate in the atrial chambers of the heart. (Supraventricular simply means above the ventricles.) sisu / Getty Images. There are several different kinds of SVT, but to a person who has SVT, all of them tend to feel about the same Most patients with SVT do not have known heart disease and may present with episodic tachycardia, palpitations, anxiety, light-headedness, dyspnea, fatigue, or pulsations in the neck

SVT is defined as a rhythm with a heart rate greater than 100 beats per minute and a QRS width less than 120 msec. Atrioventricular reentry tachycardia (AVRT) is a type of SVT most common in young patients, whereas in patients older than age 65 years, atrial tachycardia (AT) is the type of SVT found most commonly SVT = supraventricular tachycardia. A = consistent, good-quality patient-oriented evidence; B = inconsistent or limited-quality patient-oriented evidence; C = consensus, disease-oriente Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) is a family of cardiac arrhythmias that cause an inappropriately rapid heart rate. SVTs originate in the atria, the upper chambers of the heart. Paroxysmal atrial tachycardia (PAT) is an older name for SVT that you still may hear on occasion Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) | Circulatory System and Disease | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy - YouTube

Simply stated, an SVT is an arrhythmia that originates from above (supra) the ventricle. This term encompasses a large number of arrhythmias and therefore the term SVT is only a general description, not a specific diagnosis Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) is a condition where your heart suddenly beats much faster than normal. It's not usually serious, but some people may need treatment. Causes of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) SVT happens when the electrical system that controls your heart rhythm is not working properly What is supraventricular tachycardia? Supraventricular tachycardias (SVT) are a group of abnormally fast heart rhythms (heartbeats). It's a problem in the electrical system of the heart. The word supraventricular means above the ventricles. With SVT, the abnormal rhythm starts in the upper heart chambers (atria) Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (paroxysmal SVT) is an episodic condition with an abrupt onset and termination. (See Etiology and Presentation.) SVT in general is any tachyarrhythmia that requires atrial and/or atrioventricular (AV) nodal tissue for its initiation and maintenance

Supraventricular tachycardia - Diagnosis and treatment

Major forms of SVT, or PSVT: AV nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT), atrioventricular reciprocating tachycardia (AVRT), and atrial tachycardia. ECG (EKG), pa.. What is supraventricular tachycardia (SVT)? SVT is a condition that causes your heart to beat much faster than it should. SVT is a type of abnormal heart rhythm, called an arrhythmia, that starts in the upper part of your heart. It may last from a few seconds or hours to several days Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT, PSVT) is one type of heart rhythm disorder in which the heart beats faster than normal. Symptoms may include dizziness, shortness of breath, anxiety, and palpitations. Treatment may include vagal maneuvers, medications, and surgery Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) is a heart condition that causes the heart to beat faster for a reason other than physical exertion or illness. While many people with the condition are able to lead normal lives with little or no symptoms, some people experience severe symptoms that limit their ability to work or care for themselves If we choose to consume unhealthy foods, we will increase the risk to develop heart disease and exacerbate SVT. Any food that presents a risk for our heart health will be a risk for our SVT. The factors that determine whether a product is detrimental to our health are the high concentration of sugar, trans fats, salt, and the way it was.

If it is near the skin surface, it is called superficial thrombophlebitis (SVT). Even if it is in the superficial part of the body, SVT is regarded as a benign condition because it can still trigger a number of health issues. SVT shares the same risk factors of other thrombotic conditions. Diagnosis is normally based on the symptoms Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) is the most common arrhythmia (abnormal heart rhythm) diagnosed in children. It is said to occur in up to 1 in 2500 children. While the problem is often congenital, meaning it is present at birth, the onset and severity of symptoms varies. Most of the time, the problem occurs in children with otherwise normal. Sudden, Short Episode of SVT. The initial treatment for a sudden episode of SVT is vagal maneuvers, such as bearing down, coughing, or holding your breath. These actions can slow the electrical impulses in your heart and may stop the SVT. Sometimes, your health care professional also may prescribe medications such as beta-blockers to be taken. Paroxysmal SVT is a regular, and typically narrow complex tachycardia that is characterized by sudden onset and termination. Its causes include atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT), orthodromic atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia (AVRT) utilizing an accessory pathway, and atrial tachycardia (AT) Macroreentrant atrial tachycardias are the most common (75 %) type of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) in patients with adult congenital heart disease (ACHD). Patients with ACHD, atrial tachycardias and impaired ventricular function - important risk factors for sudden cardiac death (SCD) - have a 2-9 % SCD risk per decade

Mechanisms of tachycardia

Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) is a type of abnormal heart rhythm, or arrhythmia. It occurs when a short circuit rhythm develops in the upper chamber of the heart. This results in a regular but rapid heartbeat that starts and stops abruptly disease trajectories in patients with SVT and thus con-tribute to evidence-based decision making in the man-agement of SVT in primary care. Prediction models and risk scores have long been used

What Is the Difference Between the Normal Heart Rate and the Tachycardia Heart Rate? - HTQ

Supraventricular Tachycardia (SVT) Causes, Symptoms and

Supraventricular Tachycardia (SVT): Types, Causes, & Risk

  1. They noted that, although SVT had long been regarded as a fairly benign disease, that stance has been increasingly called into question. 15-19 They were unable to construct evidence-based therapeutic recommendations because of a lack of data and concluded that more studies to include randomized clinical trials are desperately needed. The lack.
  2. Created by Bianca Yoo.Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/nclex-rn/rn-cardiovascular-diseases/rn-dysrhythmia-and-tachycardia/v/atria..
  3. ute. Many people feel their heart race from time to time, for example when they exercise or are under extreme stress. However, SVT is due to a problem with your heart's electrical system
  4. children with chronic SVT. Today, arrhythmia diagnosis and RFA therapy can be performed during a single procedure, providing a cure and sparing the child from the risks of a lifetime of antiarrhythmic drug therapy. This chapter reviews CHDs and SVT in children. These two disease states cover the majority of patients on a pediatric cardiology.

Supraventricular tachycardia - Illnesses & conditions

  1. Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a type of chronic, inflammatory arthritis that mainly affects the spine. It usually begins with inflammation of the joints between the pelvic bones and spine, gradually spreading to the joints between the vertebrae. Signs and symptoms usually begin in adolescence or early adulthood and may include back pain and stiffness
  2. SVT can send the heart into speeds up to 150-200 BPM, and sometimes, even as high as 300 BPM. Tachycardia, and SVT/PSVT itself typically does not damage the heart, is typically not serious or life-threatening IN A structurally normal heart, though some accompanying symptoms can surely make one feel/think otherwise
  3. Supraventricular tachycardia is frequently abbreviated as SVT (formerly paroxysmal atrial tachy- cardia or PAT). Supraventricular tachycardia then is a rapid rhythm of the heart that begins in the upper chambers. When patients experience change in the normal sequence of electrical impulses and an abnormal heart rhythm occurs, they are said to.
  4. ute. With SVT, the heart beats more than 100 times a
  5. ute, usually with a narrow QRS complex (< 120ms) and has a regular R-R interval
  6. Incessant SVT can result in tachycardia-mediated cardiomyopathy.9 This left ventricular dysfunction is usually completely reversible on control or cure of the arrhythmia.10 SVT occasionally results in myocardial ischaemia, or precipitates cardiac failure in patients with pre-existing coronary disease or myocardial dysfunction. The symptoms of.
  7. The term SVT encompasses a large variety of cardiac arrhythmias that typically start and stop quite suddenly and that are almost always non-life-threatening, but that can be significantly disruptive to your life. Atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia (AVRT) is a common type of SVT and is particularly common in children. 1
Mitral valve prolapse | Child Heart Specialist - Paediatric Cardiologist

Supraventricular Tachycardia (SVT) SVT is a mostly harmless heart condition, that can however lead to dizziness and tiredness, which makes for a good roleplay element and complication in battle, which is always fun solving. Contracting SVT . SVT happens in episodes SVT stands for supraventricular tachycardia.. There are many types of SVT, but atrial fibrillation is by far the most common and it is becoming more common. I wrote about this previously in a question about Atrial Fibrillation and highlighted an Australian study.. There are many types of SVT, but atrial fibrillation is by far the most common and it is becoming more common

The heart rate may be over 100, and even more than 250 beats per minute (bpm). In children, the heart rate tends to be very high. There may be signs of poor blood circulation such as lightheadedness. Between episodes of PSVT, the heart rate is normal (60 to 100 bpm). An ECG during symptoms shows PSVT Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is a genetic disorder that causes an abnormally fast and irregular heart rhythm in response to physical activity or emotional stress. Signs and symptoms include light-headedness, dizziness, and fainting. Symptoms most often develop between 7 to 9 years of age 1. Flecainide or propafenone is reasonable for ongoing management in patients without structural heart disease or ischemic heart disease who have symptomatic SVT and are not candidates for, or prefer not to undergo, catheter ablation. 45,46,107 - 112: See Online Data Supplement 2 Most patients with ventricular tachycardia have another heart problem, such as coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, an enlarged heart (cardiomyopathy) or heart valve disease. The condition can also develop after a heart attack (myocardial infarction) or heart surgery because of scar tissue that forms on the heart. Other, non-heart. And the only recognized role for amiodarone for chronic SVT management is for treatment of patients with macro-reentrant atrial tachycardia (Class 2b, LOE C) and also for treatment of SVT in congenital heart disease patients when catheter ablation is not possible or successful (Class 2b, LOE C)

Supraventricular Tachycardia (SVT) Diagnosis, Treatment

  1. Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) is a broad term that encompasses all tachydysrhythmias generated supra (above) ventricular (the ventricles), specifically from any point proximal to the bundle of His (see figure 1) [2]. The term SVT is commonly used synonymously with atrioventricular-nodal-reentry tachycardia (AVNRT)
  2. In all patients undergoing a first CA procedure for SVT, baseline characteristics and comorbidities were identified using in- and outpatient diagnostic and procedural codes at the time of index event (for a full list of International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision, German Modification, OPS, and.
  3. For more about the prevention, symptoms and risk factors of SVT, visit the American Heart Association. Managing Supraventricular Tachycardia (SVT) When it comes to diagnosing and treating heart rhythm disorders, the Jeffrey M. Carlton Heart & Vascular Institute is a nationally recognized leader in comprehensive arrhythmia management

Superficial vein thrombophlebitis (SVT, also known as superficial vein thrombosis) of the lower limb is most often a complication of varicose veins. Doppler (duplex) ultrasonography is recommended for all patients with suspected SVT of the lower limb, as concomitant deep vein thrombosis (DVT) may.. My Heal SVT Naturally Approach applies integrative logic to your circumstances. It addresses acute episodes with trigger management, prevention, better nutrition, less depletion, and more attention to self-care while simultaneously searching for the deeper causes of the vulnerability and addressing those, such as removing foods that are making. Cardiology Abbreviations and Diagnosis . AO Clinic=Aortopathy Clinic, UCP Clinic=UCHAMP Clinic, IA Clinic=Inherited Arrhythmia Clinic . Abbreviation Diagnosis Provider/Specialt Up to 25% of children with congenital heart disease can present with SVT. But also, children who have had SVT for more than 48 hours are often in heart failure when they present. The prolonged tachycardia causes poor myocardial perfusion, so when they return to their normal rate they have a floppy myocardium that struggles to recover BCS is the least frequent manifestation of the SVT spectrum, with an estimated incidence of about 0.5 to 1 case per million people per year. 1 The incidence of PVT and MVT is reported to range between .7/100.000 and 2.7/100.000 person-years. 2,3 Recent advances in imaging techniques are facilitating the detection of SVT in both symptomatic and.

Supraventricular tachycardia - Wikipedi

Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) means that from time to time your heart beats very fast for a reason other than exercise, high fever, or stress. For most people who have SVT, the heart still works normally to pump blood through the body. Types of SVT include: Atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) I've had weird skips/pauses/random irregular beats ever since I can remember. But back in the beginning of February is when they first caught the irregularity in the form of SVT. I struggle with severe anxiety- sometimes ill have a pounding racing heart that feels like the SVT but isn't. So it's hard to say Cardiac Disease and Pregnancy 1. Purpose Cardiac disease is a leading cause of maternal death in pregnancy in many developed countries, including the UK. However, there is a lack of evidence-based guidelines to assist in planning the management of affected pregnancies. The purpose of this Good Practice guidance is to provide a summary of.

Supraventricular Tachycardia Treatmen

Structural heart disease; Ischaemic heart disease; Previous MI; Family history of sudden cardiac death (suggesting conditions such as HOCM, congenital long QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome or arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia that are associated with episodes of VT) The likelihood of SVT with aberrancy is increased if In 1930, Wolff, Parkinson, and White described a series of young patients who experienced paroxysms of tachycardia and had characteristic abnormalities on electrocardiography (ECG). [] Currently, Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome is defined as a congenital condition involving abnormal conductive cardiac tissue between the atria and the ventricles that provides a pathway for a reentrant.

Personal history of other diseases of the circulatory system. Z86.79 is a billable/specific ICD-10-CM code that can be used to indicate a diagnosis for reimbursement purposes. The 2021 edition of ICD-10-CM Z86.79 became effective on October 1, 2020 Prevalence - The prevalence of arrhythmias and conduction system disease (and cardiovascular disease in general) in patients with COVID-19 varies from population to population . The vast majority of patients presenting with a systemic illness consistent with COVID-19 will not have symptoms or signs of arrhythmias or conduction system disease Carotid sinus massage — ensure that a defibrillator is available, as very rarely terminating an SVT can provoke other arrhythmias. Ideally, record an electrocardiogram (ECG) continuously during and after the procedure. Haemodynamic instability (hypotension and/or tachycardia). High risk structural heart disease including ischemic heart disease What is supraventricular tachycardia (SVT)? A normal heartbeat originates from the sinus node, the heart's pacemaker. The electrical signal passes to the bottom of the heart through a special junction, called the AV node. An abnormally fast heart rhythm (tachycardia) can arise from the upper or lower chambers of the heart, or be a 'circuit.

SVT is a clinical entity well known by experts in venous disease and most physicians in general. It presents as an acute clinical condition characterized by a painful, warm and erythematous cutaneous area following the course of a peripheral vein, which often takes on the external aspect of a cord-like structure SVT is short for supraventricular tachycardia. This is a form of arrhythmia which is typically due to a short circuit within the heart, which creates a cycle of re-entry, in which an electrical circuit continuously goes round-and-round in a circle, perpetuating a rapid heart rhythm until the circuit is broken

Types of Supraventricular Tachycardia (SVT

SVT can also be seen in people with Bartter syndrome, a kidney disease that leads to loss of potassium and magnesium. Advertisement High Levels While abnormally high levels of potassium - hyperkalemia - can cause palpitations, this condition is usually asymptomatic until your potassium reaches levels that are toxic to your heart. At that. My experience with SVT's is quite different. I have an un-diagnosed autoimmune disease. I have been admitted to 5 different hospitals from Sept. 2017 through June 2018 including about 2 weeks in the Mayo hospital in Minnesota. SVT and fluid filled lungs were my first of many symptoms

Medications to Treat Supraventricular Tachycardia (SVT) To best treat supraventriculat tachycardia, medications need to affect the conductivity of the A-V node, the staircase between the upper and lower heart chambers. Usually, these medications are taken daily, and take approximately 10-20 minutes to act A bunch of recent and contemporary elite triathletes have had problems with heart disease. she was found to have a supraventricular tachycardia (SVT)-ana rhythmia that involves the upper chambers (atria) of the heart-and underwent a successful ablation procedure for this arrhythmia at age 39 on December 1, 2010 Infection control prevents or stops the spread of infections in healthcare settings. This site includes an overview of how infections spread, ways to prevent the spread of infections, and more detailed recommendations by type of healthcare setting. Essential steps to prevent the spread of infections known as Standard Precautions and. Supraventricular Tachycardia (SVT) Supraventricular tachycardia refers to a fast, abnormal heart rhythm that involves both the upper chambers (atria) and lower chambers (ventricles) of the heart. With this condition, the problem originates either in the atria or an area in the middle region of the heart (such as the atrioventricular node)

Diagnosis and Management of Common Types of

  1. SVT, DVT and PE. Patients with a history of SVT have a four- to sixfold higher risk of developing venous thromboembolism (DVT or PE).1,3 It is reported that, in people with a diagnosis of SVT, 6% to 44% have an associated (or develop) DVT, 20% to 33% have asymptomatic PE and 2% to 13% have symptomatic PE.8 SVT in the main trunk of the great saphenous vein seems to have the strongest.
  2. utes or many.
  3. Hi: b Have read and been told that lightheadedness is a symptom of SVT. While lightheadedness, or dizziness, is reported as being one of the most common symptoms associated with supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) or paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT, starts and stops suddenly), this particular symptom obviously also has various other causes, some benign (harmless) to life.
  4. ute, but individuals with SVT experience a heart rate of over 100 beats per
  5. ute

Diagnosis and Management of Supraventricular Tachycardia

The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and superficial vein thrombosis (SVT) and its prophylaxis with an oral anti-edema and antithrombotic agent (Pycnogenol, Horphag, Research Management SA, Geneva, Switzerland) in long-haul flights, in subjects at moderate to high-risk of DVT and SVT Pregnant women with WPW syndrome but without ischemic or structural heart disease should be considered for flecainide or propafenone to prevent SVT, the task force recommends (class IIa)

This is called re-entry tachycardia or SVT (supraventricular tachycardia). Re-entry arrhythmias occur in about 50 percent of people with WPW; some patients may also have atrial fibrillation (a common irregular heart rhythm distinguished by disorganized, rapid, and irregular heart rhythm) Several studies have shown that superficial vein thrombosis (SVT) is a common venous disease that appears to be medically benign but can cause serious complications and may be associated with complications such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) [5, 6] Ankylosing spondylitis is a chronic inflammatory condition that usually affects young men. Cardiac dysfunction and pulmonary disease are well-known and commonly reported extra-articular manifestation, associated with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). AS has also been reported to be specifically associated with aortitis, aortic valve diseases, conduction disturbances, cardiomyopathy and ischemic. observed, including Behçet disease, webs (also known as mem-branous obstruction) of the inferior vena cava (IVC) and hydatid cysts [6,7]. Most studies have been performed in adults with SVT. In children with SVT prothrombotic factors seem to play an important aetiological role, however SVT may also be cause Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) is the most common symptomatic tachyarrhythmia in childhood. Treatment involves vagal manoeuvres, pharmacological agents or electrical cardioversion. We report a child with recurrent SVT secondary to Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome who is consistently able to revert her SVT by doing a handstand. This case highlights a simple non-invasive technique for the.

Noémi De Stoutz - Congenital heart disease & Supraventricular Tachycardia (SVT) For all questions related to ESC Patient Engagement, please contact us. Publications. Patient Engagement - A strategic objective of the ESC to improve cardiovascular care - European Heart Journal, Volume 38, Issue 42, 7 November 2017 Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) refers to an abnormally rapid heart rate originating above the heart's ventricles. This can occur during times of rest or low activity (i.e., at times other than exercise, illness, or stress). A heart rate that remains excessively high over the long-term (such as those seen with SVT) can lead to progressive. for VTE Disease: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis (9th edition): American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines. Recommendations that remain unchanged since that editionarenotshaded.Theorderofourpresentationofthe non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants (dabigatran The correct diagnosis of a wide complex tachycardia (WCT)—QRS duration > 120 ms—remains a challenge despite numerous established criteria for the differentiation of ventricular from supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) with aberrant conduction. Making the correct diagnosis is important for the acute as well as long term management of patients with WCT People with heart disease and those who have suffered stroke are at higher risk for serious problems from certain diseases. Getting vaccinated is an important step in staying healthy. If you have cardiovascular disease, talk with your doctor about getting your vaccinations up-to-date

Though celiac disease is commonly thought of as a digestive disorder, new research suggests that there could be a link between celiac disease and an increased risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). Let's take a closer look at the connection. Celiac Disease Causes, Symptoms, and Complications Tachycardia is a frequent cardiac condition characterized by a rapid heartbeat. Tachycardia can be caused by a variety of factors, including heart illness, such as coronary artery disease. Guidelines Publication Schedule. ESC Clinical Practice Guidelines and scientific statements are prepared by task forces which are groups of cardiologists that meet upon request to deal with particular problems in cardiology. Published in 2020. Non-St-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes. Atrial Fibrillation. Adult Congenital Heart Disease Pediatric Cardiology 28 years experience. Yes: Metoprolol is a beta blocker which is one of the medications used to treat or decrease the occurrence of svt. It is not the only treatment however and may not always be effective. 4.7k views Reviewed >2 years ago. Thank

Supraventricular Tachycardia (SVT) Overvie

  1. The current dose-finding study was performed in a controlled environment and excluded patients with concomitant medications and structural heart disease. Also, SVT could not be induced in almost.
  2. The criteria for which people with heart or circulatory disease are on the shielding list hasn't changed since the first lockdown. However, people with kidney failure (stage 5 chronic kidney disease or on kidney dialysis) have been added to the shielding list. What is the shielding advice in my area
  3. The next tier included people with a high burden of malignant tachyarrhythmia; those with less advanced stages of pulmonary hypertension, congenital heart disease, peripheral or coronary disease.
  4. Surveillance Atlas of Infectious Diseases. Please select a health topic, subpopulation, and indicator. Please note that for some health topics it may also be possible to change both the time and geographical resolution by clicking on the three vertical dots after 'time'
Chronic Venous Insufficiency Treatment in New York - HeartVein NYC

Patients with lone paroxysmal SVT vs. those with cardiovascular disease are younger, have a faster SVT rate, have an earlier onset of symptoms, and are more likely to have their condi- tion first documented in the emergency department. 9 In a paediatric cohort study of 1 967 911 live births between 2000 08, 2021 patients (51.6% male, overall.

Ventricular septal defect (VSD) -hole in the heart diagnosed by an echo